Vitamin E has many biological functions, the antioxidant function being the most important and/or best known.Other functions include enzymatic activities, gene expression and neurological function(s). It's also been suggested that the most important function of vitamin E is in cell signaling (and, that it may not have a significant role in antioxidant metabolism).
- As an antioxidant, vitamin E acts as a peroxyl radical scavenger, preventing the propagation of free radicals in tissues, by reacting with them to form a tocopheryl radical which will then be oxidized by a hydrogen donor (such as Vitamin C) and thus return to its reduced state.As it is fat-soluble, it
is incorporated into cell membranes, which protects them from oxidative damage.
- As an enzymatic activity regulator, for instance, protein kinase C (PKC), which plays a role in smooth muscle growth, can be inhibited by α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol has a stimulatory effect on the dephosphorylation enzyme, protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn, cleaves phosphate groups from PKC leading to its deactivation, bringing the smooth muscle growth to a halt.
- Vitamin E also has an effect on gene expression. Macrophages rich in cholesterol are found in the atherogenetic tissue. Scavenger receptor CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor found to be up-regulated by oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and binds it.Treatment with alpha tocopherol was found to downregulate the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor gene and the scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) and modulates expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF).CTGF gene, when expressed, is responsible for the repair of wounds and regeneration of the extracellular tissue that is lost or damaged during atherosclerosis.
- Vitamin E also plays a role in neurological functions,and inhibition of platelet aggregation.
- Vitamin E also protects lipids and prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs.
- So far, most human supplementation studies about vitamin E have used only alpha-tocopherol. This can affect levels of other forms of vitamin E, e.g.
reducing serum gamma- and delta-tocopherol concentrations. Moreover, a 2007 clinical study involving alpha-tocopherol concluded that supplementation did not reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events in middle aged and older men.